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Wallace History Timeline
 

1270-5

William Wallace born in Elderslie, Renfrewshire near Glasgow.

1286

Alexander III, King of Scotland dies while travelling to meet his new bride, Yolande de Dreux, near Kinghorn in Fife. Scottish nobles gather at Scone to elect six Guardians who will act as a provisional government, The Community of the Realm of Scotland. The Guardians will work to protect Scotland in the name of Alexander's only surviving relative, his three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway and Scotland's Queen-in-waiting.

1289

Treaty of Bingham: The Guardians agree to the marriage of the young Queen and the son of Edward I of England, thus creating a union between Scotland and England.Queen Margaret dies during a voyage from Norway. Scotland is thrown into crisis as the question of succession to the Scottish throne is cast wide open.

1291

Edward I bullies Scottish lords and nobles into recognising him as the supreme overlord of Scotland. Custody of Scotland, together with its castles and their possessions, are handed over to the English king. Court of Claims to the Scottish throne begins in Berwick.

1292

John Balliol is named as the new King of Scotland and is enthroned at Scone on St Andrew's Day.

1294

Edward I declares war on France. King John and his Scottish nobles refuse to fight the French on the side of the English - they are soon joined in revolt by the Welsh.

1295

Balliol is declared incompetent to rule the country. Scottish nobles meet in Stirling to elect a 12-man council to rule Scotland. The newly-formed council negotiate a defensive alliance with Edward's enemy, France.

1296

War begins between England and Scotland. English army massacre civilians at Berwick and Scots retaliate by doing the same throughout Northumberland. The English army marches north and takes Dunbar, Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Edinburgh, Stirling and Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Destiny from Scone, then moves back south to Berwick to take the oaths of loyalty from over 2000 Scottish nobles (the Ragman Roll).

1297

William Wallace kills the Sheriff of Lanark and joins a campaign supported by the Bishop of Glasgow, Robert Wishart, to drive English sheriffs from Scotland. Wallace gathers a small peasant army to chase Edward's justiciar, William Ormesby, from Scone Abbey. Wallace defeats the English Garrison in Glasgow at the Battle of the Bell o' the Brae. The Scottish nobles gather at Irvine, but are forced to surrender to an army of English knights. Wallace is joined by the army of Andrew Murray, who has successfully reclaimed the north-east from the English. The army of Wallace and Murray rout a vastly superior English army at Stirling Bridge.

1298

Wallace is knighted and appointed Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward I invades Scotland with a powerful army, made up predominantly of Irish and Welsh infantry. The Scottish army are defeated at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace steps down as Guardian of Scotland, to be replaced by Robert Bruce and John Comyn.

1299

Diplomatic pressure from France and Rome persuades Edward to release the imprisoned King John. Wallace departs for Europe to try to gain further support for the Scottish cause. William Lamberton, the Bishop of St Andrews, is appointed as a third, neutral Guardian to try and maintain order between Bruce and Comyn. Scots recapture Stirling Castle.

1300

Bruce resigns as joint Guardian of Scotland and is replaced Ingram de Umfraville, a kinsman of King John, and ally of Comyn. England invades Scotland and refuse a personal demand from John Comyn to restore King John and give up Scottish lands. Continued diplomatic pressure from France and Rome (where Wallace was acting as an envoy) forces Edward to sign a truce and promise to release the Bishop of Glasgow from his English prison.

1301

Comyn, Lamberton and Umfraville resign as Guardians in favour of John Soulis. Edward's army occupies Glasgow.

1302

The Pope overrides the English terms of King John's release and hands him over to the French. Wallace returns from France with news of possible assistance from King Philip IV. Robert Bruce, fearing a return by King John would mean transfer of power to his enemy, John Comyn, defects to Edward. The French are defeated by a Flemish peasant army at Courtrai.

1303

Wallace, Comyn and Simon Fraser continue to struggle against English occupation and defeat an English expeditionary force at Roslin, near Edinburgh. Edward invades again with a full-strength force, after having signed a peace treaty with a much-weakened France. Wallace gains financial support from Bishop Wishart of Glasgow to continue the struggle.

1304

Wallace's small force is defeated by an army of English knights at Happrew, near Peebles. Wallace survives, but becomes a fugitive. Edward lays siege to Stirling Castle, the last major fortification to resist Edward's army.

1305

Wallace is betrayed and captured by John Menteith while visiting Glasgow to meet with the treacherous Robert Bruce. Wallace is taken to London and executed.